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如何将浮点数转换为人类可读的分数?

假设我们有0.33,我们需要输出“1/3”。
如果我们有“0.4”,我们需要输出“2/5”。

我们的想法是让人们可读,让用户理解“y部分中的x部分”,作为理解数据的更好方式。

我知道百分比是一个很好的替代品,但我想知道是否有一个简单的方法来做到这一点?

99
Swaroop C H

我找到了David Eppstein的 找到给定实数的理性近似 C代码正是你所要求的。它基于连续分数理论,非常快速且相当紧凑。

我已经为特定的分子和分母限制使用了这个版本。

/*
** find rational approximation to given real number
** David Eppstein / UC Irvine / 8 Aug 1993
**
** With corrections from Arno Formella, May 2008
**
** usage: a.out r d
**   r is real number to approx
**   d is the maximum denominator allowed
**
** based on the theory of continued fractions
** if x = a1 + 1/(a2 + 1/(a3 + 1/(a4 + ...)))
** then best approximation is found by truncating this series
** (with some adjustments in the last term).
**
** Note the fraction can be recovered as the first column of the matrix
**  ( a1 1 ) ( a2 1 ) ( a3 1 ) ...
**  ( 1  0 ) ( 1  0 ) ( 1  0 )
** Instead of keeping the sequence of continued fraction terms,
** we just keep the last partial product of these matrices.
*/

#include <stdio.h>

main(ac, av)
int ac;
char ** av;
{
    double atof();
    int atoi();
    void exit();

    long m[2][2];
    double x, startx;
    long maxden;
    long ai;

    /* read command line arguments */
    if (ac != 3) {
        fprintf(stderr, "usage: %s r d\n",av[0]);  // AF: argument missing
        exit(1);
    }
    startx = x = atof(av[1]);
    maxden = atoi(av[2]);

    /* initialize matrix */
    m[0][0] = m[1][1] = 1;
    m[0][1] = m[1][0] = 0;

    /* loop finding terms until denom gets too big */
    while (m[1][0] *  ( ai = (long)x ) + m[1][1] <= maxden) {
        long t;
        t = m[0][0] * ai + m[0][1];
        m[0][1] = m[0][0];
        m[0][0] = t;
        t = m[1][0] * ai + m[1][1];
        m[1][1] = m[1][0];
        m[1][0] = t;
        if(x==(double)ai) break;     // AF: division by zero
        x = 1/(x - (double) ai);
        if(x>(double)0x7FFFFFFF) break;  // AF: representation failure
    } 

    /* now remaining x is between 0 and 1/ai */
    /* approx as either 0 or 1/m where m is max that will fit in maxden */
    /* first try zero */
    printf("%ld/%ld, error = %e\n", m[0][0], m[1][0],
           startx - ((double) m[0][0] / (double) m[1][0]));

    /* now try other possibility */
    ai = (maxden - m[1][1]) / m[1][0];
    m[0][0] = m[0][0] * ai + m[0][1];
    m[1][0] = m[1][0] * ai + m[1][1];
    printf("%ld/%ld, error = %e\n", m[0][0], m[1][0],
           startx - ((double) m[0][0] / (double) m[1][0]));
}
67
Epsilon

从Python 2.6开始,有 fractions module。

(引用文档。)

>>> from fractions import Fraction
>>> Fraction('3.1415926535897932').limit_denominator(1000)
Fraction(355, 113)

>>> from math import pi, cos
>>> Fraction.from_float(cos(pi/3))
Fraction(4503599627370497, 9007199254740992)
>>> Fraction.from_float(cos(pi/3)).limit_denominator()
Fraction(1, 2)
25
Debilski

如果输出是为了给人类读者一个结果顺序的快速印象,那么返回“113/211”之类的东西是没有意义的,所以输出应该限制为使用一位数字(也许是1/10和9/10)。如果是这样,你可以观察到只有27 不同 分数。

由于用于生成输出的基础数学将永远不会改变,因此解决方案可能是简单地对二进制搜索树进行硬编码,以便该函数最多执行log(27)〜= 4 3/4比较。这是经过测试的C版代码

char *userTextForDouble(double d, char *rval)
{
    if (d == 0.0)
        return "0";

    // TODO: negative numbers:if (d < 0.0)...
    if (d >= 1.0)
        sprintf(rval, "%.0f ", floor(d));
    d = d-floor(d); // now only the fractional part is left

    if (d == 0.0)
        return rval;

    if( d < 0.47 )
    {
        if( d < 0.25 )
        {
            if( d < 0.16 )
            {
                if( d < 0.12 ) // Note: fixed from .13
                {
                    if( d < 0.11 )
                        strcat(rval, "1/10"); // .1
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "1/9"); // .1111....
                }
                else // d >= .12
                {
                    if( d < 0.14 )
                        strcat(rval, "1/8"); // .125
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "1/7"); // .1428...
                }
            }
            else // d >= .16
            {
                if( d < 0.19 )
                {
                    strcat(rval, "1/6"); // .1666...
                }
                else // d > .19
                {
                    if( d < 0.22 )
                        strcat(rval, "1/5"); // .2
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "2/9"); // .2222...
                }
            }
        }
        else // d >= .25
        {
            if( d < 0.37 ) // Note: fixed from .38
            {
                if( d < 0.28 ) // Note: fixed from .29
                {
                    strcat(rval, "1/4"); // .25
                }
                else // d >=.28
                {
                    if( d < 0.31 )
                        strcat(rval, "2/7"); // .2857...
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "1/3"); // .3333...
                }
            }
            else // d >= .37
            {
                if( d < 0.42 ) // Note: fixed from .43
                {
                    if( d < 0.40 )
                        strcat(rval, "3/8"); // .375
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "2/5"); // .4
                }
                else // d >= .42
                {
                    if( d < 0.44 )
                        strcat(rval, "3/7"); // .4285...
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "4/9"); // .4444...
                }
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        if( d < 0.71 )
        {
            if( d < 0.60 )
            {
                if( d < 0.55 ) // Note: fixed from .56
                {
                    strcat(rval, "1/2"); // .5
                }
                else // d >= .55
                {
                    if( d < 0.57 )
                        strcat(rval, "5/9"); // .5555...
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "4/7"); // .5714
                }
            }
            else // d >= .6
            {
                if( d < 0.62 ) // Note: Fixed from .63
                {
                    strcat(rval, "3/5"); // .6
                }
                else // d >= .62
                {
                    if( d < 0.66 )
                        strcat(rval, "5/8"); // .625
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "2/3"); // .6666...
                }
            }
        }
        else
        {
            if( d < 0.80 )
            {
                if( d < 0.74 )
                {
                    strcat(rval, "5/7"); // .7142...
                }
                else // d >= .74
                {
                    if(d < 0.77 ) // Note: fixed from .78
                        strcat(rval, "3/4"); // .75
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "7/9"); // .7777...
                }
            }
            else // d >= .8
            {
                if( d < 0.85 ) // Note: fixed from .86
                {
                    if( d < 0.83 )
                        strcat(rval, "4/5"); // .8
                    else
                        strcat(rval, "5/6"); // .8333...
                }
                else // d >= .85
                {
                    if( d < 0.87 ) // Note: fixed from .88
                    {
                        strcat(rval, "6/7"); // .8571
                    }
                    else // d >= .87
                    {
                        if( d < 0.88 ) // Note: fixed from .89
                        {
                            strcat(rval, "7/8"); // .875
                        }
                        else // d >= .88
                        {
                            if( d < 0.90 )
                                strcat(rval, "8/9"); // .8888...
                            else
                                strcat(rval, "9/10"); // .9
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    return rval;
}
21
J P

这是一个解释将小数转换为分数的数学的链接:

http://www.webmath.com/dec2fract.html

这里有一个示例函数,用于如何使用VB(来自www.freevbcode.com/ShowCode.asp?ID=582)实际执行此操作:

Public Function Dec2Frac(ByVal f As Double) As String

   Dim df As Double
   Dim lUpperPart As Long
   Dim lLowerPart As Long

   lUpperPart = 1
   lLowerPart = 1

   df = lUpperPart / lLowerPart
   While (df <> f)
      If (df < f) Then
         lUpperPart = lUpperPart + 1
      Else
         lLowerPart = lLowerPart + 1
         lUpperPart = f * lLowerPart
      End If
      df = lUpperPart / lLowerPart
   Wend
Dec2Frac = CStr(lUpperPart) & "/" & CStr(lLowerPart)
End Function

(来自谷歌搜索:将小数转换为分数,将小数转换为分数代码)

16
devinmoore

您可能希望阅读 每个计算机科学家应该知道的关于浮点算术的内容

您必须通过乘以一个大数字来指定一些精度:

3.141592 * 1000000 = 3141592

然后你可以做一个分数:

3 + (141592 / 1000000)

并通过GCD减少......

3 + (17699 / 125000)

但没有办法得到 意图 分数。您可能希望 always 在整个代码中使用分数 - 只需要在可以避免溢出的情况下减少分数!

10
nlucaroni

以下是devinmoore建议的VB代码的Perl和Javascript版本:

Perl的:

sub dec2frac {
    my $d = shift;

    my $df  = 1;
    my $top = 1;
    my $bot = 1;

    while ($df != $d) {
      if ($df < $d) {
        $top += 1;
      }
      else {
         $bot += 1;
         $top = int($d * $bot);
      }
      $df = $top / $bot;
   }
   return "$top/$bot";
}

几乎相同的javascript:

function dec2frac(d) {

    var df = 1;
    var top = 1;
    var bot = 1;

    while (df != d) {
        if (df < d) {
            top += 1;
        }
        else {
            bot += 1;
            top = parseInt(d * bot);
        }
        df = top / bot;
    }
    return top + '/' + bot;
}
9
mivk

一个C#实现

/// <summary>
/// Represents a rational number
/// </summary>
public struct Fraction
{
    public int Numerator;
    public int Denominator;

    /// <summary>
    /// Constructor
    /// </summary>
    public Fraction(int numerator, int denominator)
    {
        this.Numerator = numerator;
        this.Denominator = denominator;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Approximates a fraction from the provided double
    /// </summary>
    public static Fraction Parse(double d)
    {
        return ApproximateFraction(d);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns this fraction expressed as a double, rounded to the specified number of decimal places.
    /// Returns double.NaN if denominator is zero
    /// </summary>
    public double ToDouble(int decimalPlaces)
    {
        if (this.Denominator == 0)
            return double.NaN;

        return System.Math.Round(
            Numerator / (double)Denominator,
            decimalPlaces
        );
    }


    /// <summary>
    /// Approximates the provided value to a fraction.
    /// http://stackoverflow.com/questions/95727/how-to-convert-floats-to-human-readable-fractions
    /// </summary>
    private static Fraction ApproximateFraction(double value)
    {
        const double EPSILON = .000001d;

        int n = 1;  // numerator
        int d = 1;  // denominator
        double fraction = n / d;

        while (System.Math.Abs(fraction - value) > EPSILON)
        {
            if (fraction < value)
            {
                n++;
            }
            else
            {
                d++;
                n = (int)System.Math.Round(value * d);
            }

            fraction = n / (double)d;
        }

        return new Fraction(n, d);
    }
}
9
Tom

Stern-Brocot树 诱导一种相当自然的方式来用简单分母逼近分数的实数。

7
Doug McClean

部分问题在于,如此多的分数实际上不容易被解释为分数。例如。 0.33不是1/3,它是33/100。但是如果你还记得你的小学培训,那么有一个将十进制值转换成分数的过程,但是它不太可能给你你想要的东西,因为大多数时候十进制数不是存储在0.33,而是0.329999999999998或其他一些。

帮自己一个忙,不要为此烦恼,但如果你需要,你可以做以下事情:

将原始值乘以10,直到删除小数部分。保留该数字,并将其用作除数。然后通过寻找共同点进行一系列简化。

所以0.4将是4/10。然后,您将寻找以低值开头的公约数,可能是素数。从2开始,你会看到2是否通过检查除法的底限是否与除法本身相同来均匀地除以分子和分母。

floor(5/2) = 2
5/2 = 2.5

所以5不均匀分为2。那么你检查下一个数字,比如3.你这样做直到你达到或低于较小数字的平方根。

完成后,你需要

5
Orion Adrian

这不是一个“算法”,只是一个Python解决方案: http://docs.python.org/library/fractions.html

>>> from fractions import Fraction
>>> Fraction('3.1415926535897932').limit_denominator(1000)
Fraction(355, 113)
5
eldad

“假设我们有0.33,我们需要输出”1/3“。”

你期望“解决方案”有多精确? 0.33不等于1/3。你如何认识到“好”(易读)的答案?

无论如何,可能的算法可能是:

如果你希望在X/Y形式中找到最接近的分数,其中Y小于10,那么你可以为每个Y计算X循环所有9个可能的Y,然后选择最准确的Y.

4
Suma

R中的内置解决方案:

library(MASS)
fractions(0.666666666)
## [1] 2/3

这使用了连续分数方法,并具有可选的cyclesmax.denominator参数来调整精度。

3
Ben Bolker

我认为最好的方法是首先将浮点值转换为ascii表示。在C++中你可以使用ostringstream或在C中,你可以使用sprintf。以下是它在C++中的外观:

ostringstream oss;
float num;
cin >> num;
oss << num;
string numStr = oss.str();
int i = numStr.length(), pow_ten = 0;
while (i > 0) {
    if (numStr[i] == '.')
        break;
    pow_ten++;
    i--;
}
for (int j = 1; j < pow_ten; j++) {
    num *= 10.0;
}
cout << static_cast<int>(num) << "/" << pow(10, pow_ten - 1) << endl;

类似的方法可以直接采用C.

之后,您需要检查分数是否为最低分。该算法将给出精确的答案,即0.33将输出“33/100”,而不是“1/3”。然而,0.4将给出“4/10”,当减少到最低值时将是“2/5”。这可能不如EppStein的解决方案那么强大,但我相信这更直接。

2
bpm

一种解决方案是首先将所有数字存储为有理数。存在有理数运算的库(例如 _ gmp _ )。如果使用OO语言,您可以使用有理数字类库来替换您的数字类。

除其他外,财务计划将使用这样的解决方案,以便能够进行精确计算并保持使用普通浮动可能丢失的精度。

当然它会慢得多,所以对你来说可能不太实用。取决于您需要做多少计算,以及精度对您有多重要。

a = rational(1);
b = rational(3);
c = a / b;

print (c.asFraction)  --->  "1/3"
print (c.asFloat) ----> "0.333333"
2
robottobor

用C++回答,假设你有一个'BigInt'类,它可以存储无限大小的整数。

您可以使用'unsigned long long'代替,但它仅适用于某些值。

void GetRational(double val)
{
    if (val == val+1) // Inf
        throw "Infinite Value";
    if (val != val) // NaN
        throw "Undefined Value";

    bool sign = false;
    BigInt enumerator = 0;
    BigInt denominator = 1;

    if (val < 0)
    {
        val = -val;
        sign = true;
    }

    while (val > 0)
    {
        unsigned int intVal = (unsigned int)val;
        val -= intVal;
        enumerator += intVal;
        val *= 2;
        enumerator *= 2;
        denominator *= 2;
    }

    BigInt gcd = GCD(enumerator,denominator);
    enumerator /= gcd;
    denominator /= gcd;

    Print(sign? "-":"+");
    Print(enumerator);
    Print("/");
    Print(denominator);

    // Or simply return {sign,enumerator,denominator} as you wish
}

BTW,GetRational(0.0)将返回“+0/1”,因此您可能需要单独处理此案例。

P.S。:我已经在我自己的'RationalNum'课程中使用这段代码已经有好几年了,而且它已经过彻底的测试。

2
barak manos

您必须弄清楚您愿意接受的错误级别。并非所有小数部分都会减少到一个简单的分数。我可能会选择一个易于分割的数字,如60,并计算出最接近该值的60个数,然后简化分数。

2
Mark Bessey

这个算法由 Ian Richards / John Kennedy 不仅返回Nice分数,它在速度方面表现也很好。这是我从 此答案 取得的C#代码。

它可以处理除NaN和+/-无穷大等特殊值之外的所有double值,如果需要,您必须添加它们。

它返回new Fraction(numerator, denominator)。替换为您自己的类型。

有关更多示例值和与其他算法的比较, go here

public Fraction RealToFraction(double value, double accuracy)
{
    if (accuracy <= 0.0 || accuracy >= 1.0)
    {
        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("accuracy", "Must be > 0 and < 1.");
    }

    int sign = Math.Sign(value);

    if (sign == -1)
    {
        value = Math.Abs(value);
    }

    // Accuracy is the maximum relative error; convert to absolute maxError
    double maxError = sign == 0 ? accuracy : value * accuracy;

    int n = (int) Math.Floor(value);
    value -= n;

    if (value < maxError)
    {
        return new Fraction(sign * n, 1);
    }

    if (1 - maxError < value)
    {
        return new Fraction(sign * (n + 1), 1);
    }

    double z = value;
    int previousDenominator = 0;
    int denominator = 1;
    int numerator;

    do
    {
        z = 1.0 / (z - (int) z);
        int temp = denominator;
        denominator = denominator * (int) z + previousDenominator;
        previousDenominator = temp;
        numerator = Convert.ToInt32(value * denominator);
    }
    while (Math.Abs(value - (double) numerator / denominator) > maxError && z != (int) z);

    return new Fraction((n * denominator + numerator) * sign, denominator);
}

此算法返回的示例值:

Accuracy: 1.0E-3      | Richards                     
Input                 | Result           Error       
======================| =============================
   3                  |       3/1          0         
   0.999999           |       1/1         1.0E-6     
   1.000001           |       1/1        -1.0E-6     
   0.50 (1/2)         |       1/2          0         
   0.33... (1/3)      |       1/3          0         
   0.67... (2/3)      |       2/3          0         
   0.25 (1/4)         |       1/4          0         
   0.11... (1/9)      |       1/9          0         
   0.09... (1/11)     |       1/11         0         
   0.62... (307/499)  |       8/13        2.5E-4     
   0.14... (33/229)   |      16/111       2.7E-4     
   0.05... (33/683)   |      10/207      -1.5E-4     
   0.18... (100/541)  |      17/92       -3.3E-4     
   0.06... (33/541)   |       5/82       -3.7E-4     
   0.1                |       1/10         0         
   0.2                |       1/5          0         
   0.3                |       3/10         0         
   0.4                |       2/5          0         
   0.5                |       1/2          0         
   0.6                |       3/5          0         
   0.7                |       7/10         0         
   0.8                |       4/5          0         
   0.9                |       9/10         0         
   0.01               |       1/100        0         
   0.001              |       1/1000       0         
   0.0001             |       1/10000      0         
   0.33333333333      |       1/3         1.0E-11    
   0.333              |     333/1000       0         
   0.7777             |       7/9         1.0E-4     
   0.11               |      10/91       -1.0E-3     
   0.1111             |       1/9         1.0E-4     
   3.14               |      22/7         9.1E-4     
   3.14... (pi)       |      22/7         4.0E-4     
   2.72... (e)        |      87/32        1.7E-4     
   0.7454545454545    |      38/51       -4.8E-4     
   0.01024801004      |       2/195       8.2E-4     
   0.99011            |     100/101      -1.1E-5     
   0.26... (5/19)     |       5/19         0         
   0.61... (37/61)    |      17/28        9.7E-4     
                      | 
Accuracy: 1.0E-4      | Richards                     
Input                 | Result           Error       
======================| =============================
   0.62... (307/499)  |     299/486      -6.7E-6     
   0.05... (33/683)   |      23/476       6.4E-5     
   0.06... (33/541)   |      33/541        0         
   1E-05              |       1/99999     1.0E-5     
   0.7777             |    1109/1426     -1.8E-7     
   3.14... (pi)       |     333/106      -2.6E-5     
   2.72... (e)        |     193/71        1.0E-5     
   0.61... (37/61)    |      37/61         0         
2
Kay Zed

您可以使用以下步骤在任何编程语言中执行此操作:

  1. 乘以并除以10 ^ x,其中x是确保数字没有剩余小数位所需的10的幂。示例:将0.33乘以10 ^ 2 = 100使其成为33并将其除以相同以得到33/100
  2. 通过因子分解减少结果分数的分子和分母,直到您无法再从结果中获得整数。
  3. 由此产生的减少分数应该是你的答案。

示例:0.2 = 0.2×10 ^ 1/10 ^ 1 = 2/10 = 1/5

所以,这可以被解读为“5分之一”

2
Pascal

Ruby已经内置了一个解决方案:

0.33.rationalize.to_s # => "33/100"
0.4.rationalize.to_s # => "2/5"

在Rails中,ActiveRecord数值属性也可以转换:

product.size = 0.33
product.size.to_r.to_s # => "33/100"
2
Josh W Lewis

完成上面的代码并将其转换为as3

public static function toFrac(f:Number) : String
    {
        if (f>1)
        {
            var parte1:int;
            var parte2:Number;
            var resultado:String;
            var loc:int = String(f).indexOf(".");
            parte2 = Number(String(f).slice(loc, String(f).length));
            parte1 = int(String(f).slice(0,loc));
            resultado = toFrac(parte2);
            parte1 *= int(resultado.slice(resultado.indexOf("/") + 1, resultado.length)) + int(resultado.slice(0, resultado.indexOf("/")));
            resultado = String(parte1) +  resultado.slice(resultado.indexOf("/"), resultado.length)
            return resultado;
        }
        if( f < 0.47 )
            if( f < 0.25 )
                if( f < 0.16 )
                    if( f < 0.13 )
                        if( f < 0.11 )
                            return "1/10";
                        else
                            return "1/9";
                    else
                        if( f < 0.14 )
                            return "1/8";
                        else
                            return "1/7";
                else
                    if( f < 0.19 )
                        return "1/6";
                    else
                        if( f < 0.22 )
                            return "1/5";
                        else
                            return "2/9";
            else
                if( f < 0.38 )
                    if( f < 0.29 )
                        return "1/4";
                    else
                        if( f < 0.31 )
                            return "2/7";
                        else
                            return "1/3";
                else
                    if( f < 0.43 )
                        if( f < 0.40 )
                            return "3/8";
                        else
                            return "2/5";
                    else
                        if( f < 0.44 )
                            return "3/7";
                        else
                            return "4/9";
        else
            if( f < 0.71 )
                if( f < 0.60 )
                    if( f < 0.56 )
                        return "1/2";
                    else
                        if( f < 0.57 )
                            return "5/9";
                        else
                            return "4/7";
                else
                    if( f < 0.63 )
                        return "3/5";
                    else
                        if( f < 0.66 )
                            return "5/8";
                        else
                            return "2/3";
            else
                if( f < 0.80 )
                    if( f < 0.74 )
                        return "5/7";
                    else
                        if(f < 0.78 )
                            return "3/4";
                        else
                            return "7/9";
                else
                    if( f < 0.86 )
                        if( f < 0.83 )
                            return "4/5";
                        else
                            return "5/6";
                    else
                        if( f < 0.88 )
                            return "6/7";
                        else
                            if( f < 0.89 )
                                return "7/8";
                            else
                                if( f < 0.90 )
                                    return "8/9";
                                else
                                    return "9/10";
    }
1
João Lopes

这是javascript中使用强力方法的快速而又脏的实现。完全没有优化,它在预定义的分数范围内工作: http://jsfiddle.net/PdL23/1/

/* This should convert any decimals to a simplified fraction within the range specified by the two for loops. Haven't done any thorough testing, but it seems to work fine.

I have set the bounds for numerator and denominator to 20, 20... but you can increase this if you want in the two for loops.

Disclaimer: Its not at all optimized. (Feel free to create an improved version.)
*/

decimalToSimplifiedFraction = function(n) {

    for(num = 1; num < 20; num++) {  // "num" is the potential numerator
        for(den = 1; den < 20; den++) {  // "den" is the potential denominator
            var multiplyByInverse = (n * den ) / num;

            var roundingError = Math.round(multiplyByInverse) - multiplyByInverse;

            // Checking if we have found the inverse of the number, 
            if((Math.round(multiplyByInverse) == 1) && (Math.abs(roundingError) < 0.01)) {
                return num + "/" + den;
            }
        }
    }
};

//Put in your test number here.
var floatNumber = 2.56;

alert(floatNumber + " = " + decimalToSimplifiedFraction(floatNumber));

这受到JPS使用的方法的启发。

1
Deepak Joy

您将遇到两个基本问题:

1)浮点不是精确表示,这意味着如果你有一个“x/y”的分数导致值“z”,你的分数算法可能会返回“x/y”以外的结果。

2)有无数的无理数比理性无数。有理数是可以表示为分数的数。非理性是不可能的。

但是,以一种便宜的方式,由于浮点数具有极限精度,因此您可以始终将其表示为某种形式的派系。 (我认为...)

1
Torlack

假设我们有0.33,我们需要输出“1/3”。如果我们有“0.4”,我们需要输出“2/5”。

通常情况下这是错误的,因为1/3 = 0.3333333 = 0.(3)此外,不可能从上面提出的解决方案中找出十进制可以转换为具有定义精度的分数,因为输出总是分数。

但是,我建议我的综合功能有很多选项基于 无限几何系列的想法 ,特别是关于公式:

enter image description here

首先,这个函数试图在字符串表示中找到分数的周期。之后,应用上述公式。

有理数的代码来自 Stephen M. McKamey C#中的有理数实现。我希望将代码移植到其他语言上并不困难。

/// <summary>
/// Convert decimal to fraction
/// </summary>
/// <param name="value">decimal value to convert</param>
/// <param name="result">result fraction if conversation is succsess</param>
/// <param name="decimalPlaces">precision of considereation frac part of value</param>
/// <param name="trimZeroes">trim zeroes on the right part of the value or not</param>
/// <param name="minPeriodRepeat">minimum period repeating</param>
/// <param name="digitsForReal">precision for determination value to real if period has not been founded</param>
/// <returns></returns>
public static bool FromDecimal(decimal value, out Rational<T> result, 
    int decimalPlaces = 28, bool trimZeroes = false, decimal minPeriodRepeat = 2, int digitsForReal = 9)
{
    var valueStr = value.ToString("0.0000000000000000000000000000", CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);
    var strs = valueStr.Split('.');

    long intPart = long.Parse(strs[0]);
    string fracPartTrimEnd = strs[1].TrimEnd(new char[] { '0' });
    string fracPart;

    if (trimZeroes)
    {
        fracPart = fracPartTrimEnd;
        decimalPlaces = Math.Min(decimalPlaces, fracPart.Length);
    }
    else
        fracPart = strs[1];

    result = new Rational<T>();
    try
    {
        string periodPart;
        bool periodFound = false;

        int i;
        for (i = 0; i < fracPart.Length; i++)
        {
            if (fracPart[i] == '0' && i != 0)
                continue;

            for (int j = i + 1; j < fracPart.Length; j++)
            {
                periodPart = fracPart.Substring(i, j - i);
                periodFound = true;
                decimal periodRepeat = 1;
                decimal periodStep = 1.0m / periodPart.Length;
                var upperBound = Math.Min(fracPart.Length, decimalPlaces);
                int k;
                for (k = i + periodPart.Length; k < upperBound; k += 1)
                {
                    if (periodPart[(k - i) % periodPart.Length] != fracPart[k])
                    {
                        periodFound = false;
                        break;
                    }
                    periodRepeat += periodStep;
                }

                if (!periodFound && upperBound - k <= periodPart.Length && periodPart[(upperBound - i) % periodPart.Length] > '5')
                {
                    var ind = (k - i) % periodPart.Length;
                    var regroupedPeriod = (periodPart.Substring(ind) + periodPart.Remove(ind)).Substring(0, upperBound - k);
                    ulong periodTailPlusOne = ulong.Parse(regroupedPeriod) + 1;
                    ulong fracTail = ulong.Parse(fracPart.Substring(k, regroupedPeriod.Length));
                    if (periodTailPlusOne == fracTail)
                        periodFound = true;
                }

                if (periodFound && periodRepeat >= minPeriodRepeat)
                {
                    result = FromDecimal(strs[0], fracPart.Substring(0, i), periodPart);
                    break;
                }
                else
                    periodFound = false;
            }

            if (periodFound)
                break;
        }

        if (!periodFound)
        {
            if (fracPartTrimEnd.Length >= digitsForReal)
                return false;
            else
            {
                result = new Rational<T>(long.Parse(strs[0]), 1, false);
                if (fracPartTrimEnd.Length != 0)
                    result = new Rational<T>(ulong.Parse(fracPartTrimEnd), TenInPower(fracPartTrimEnd.Length));
                return true;
            }
        }

        return true;
    }
    catch
    {
        return false;
    }
}

public static Rational<T> FromDecimal(string intPart, string fracPart, string periodPart)
{
    Rational<T> firstFracPart;
    if (fracPart != null && fracPart.Length != 0)
    {
        ulong denominator = TenInPower(fracPart.Length);
        firstFracPart = new Rational<T>(ulong.Parse(fracPart), denominator);
    }
    else
        firstFracPart = new Rational<T>(0, 1, false);

    Rational<T> secondFracPart;
    if (periodPart != null && periodPart.Length != 0)
        secondFracPart =
            new Rational<T>(ulong.Parse(periodPart), TenInPower(fracPart.Length)) *
            new Rational<T>(1, Nines((ulong)periodPart.Length), false);
    else
        secondFracPart = new Rational<T>(0, 1, false);

    var result = firstFracPart + secondFracPart;
    if (intPart != null && intPart.Length != 0)
    {
        long intPartLong = long.Parse(intPart);
        result = new Rational<T>(intPartLong, 1, false) + (intPartLong == 0 ? 1 : Math.Sign(intPartLong)) * result;
    }

    return result;
}

private static ulong TenInPower(int power)
{
    ulong result = 1;
    for (int l = 0; l < power; l++)
        result *= 10;
    return result;
}

private static decimal TenInNegPower(int power)
{
    decimal result = 1;
    for (int l = 0; l > power; l--)
        result /= 10.0m;
    return result;
}

private static ulong Nines(ulong power)
{
    ulong result = 9;
    if (power >= 0)
        for (ulong l = 0; l < power - 1; l++)
            result = result * 10 + 9;
    return result;
}

有一些使用的例子:

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.33333333m, out r, 8, false);
// then r == 1 / 3;

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.33333333m, out r, 9, false);
// then r == 33333333 / 100000000;

正确零件零件修剪的情况:

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.33m, out r, 28, true);
// then r == 1 / 3;

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.33m, out r, 28, true);
// then r == 33 / 100;

最小时期演示:

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.123412m, out r, 28, true, 1.5m));
// then r == 1234 / 9999;
Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.123412m, out r, 28, true, 1.6m));
// then r == 123412 / 1000000; because of minimu repeating of period is 0.1234123 in this case.

四舍五入:

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.8888888888888888888888888889m, out r));
// then r == 8 == 9;

最有趣的案例:

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.12345678m, out r, 28, true, 2, 9);
// then r == 12345678 / 100000000;

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.12345678m, out r, 28, true, 2, 8);
// Conversation failed, because of period has not been founded and there are too many digits in fraction part of input value.

Rational<long>.FromDecimal(0.12121212121212121m, out r, 28, true, 2, 9));
// then r == 4 / 33; Despite of too many digits in input value, period has been founded. Thus it's possible to convert value to fraction.

每个人都可以在 我的Github上的MathFunctions库中找到的其他测试和代码

1
Ivan Kochurkin

我遇到了一个特别优雅的Haskell解决方案,利用了一个变形现象。它取决于 recursion-schemes package。

{-# LANGUAGE AllowAmbiguousTypes #-}
{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts    #-}

import           Control.Applicative   (liftA2)
import           Control.Monad         (ap)
import           Data.Functor.Foldable
import           Data.Ratio            (Ratio, (%))

isInteger :: (RealFrac a) => a -> Bool
isInteger = ((==) <*>) (realToFrac . floor)

continuedFraction :: (RealFrac a) => a -> [Int]
continuedFraction = liftA2 (:) floor (ana coalgebra)
    where coalgebra x
              | isInteger x = Nil
              | otherwise = Cons (floor alpha) alpha
                  where alpha = 1 / (x - realToFrac (floor x))

collapseFraction :: (Integral a) => [Int] -> Ratio a
collapseFraction [x]    = fromIntegral x % 1
collapseFraction (x:xs) = (fromIntegral x % 1) + 1 / collapseFraction xs

-- | Use the nth convergent to approximate x
approximate :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> Int -> Ratio b
approximate x n = collapseFraction $ take n (continuedFraction x)

如果你在ghci中尝试这个,它确实有效!

λ:> approximate pi 2
22 % 7
0
user8174234

正如许多人所说,你真的无法将浮点数转换回一个分数(除非它非常精确,如.25)。当然,您可以创建一些查找大量分数的类型,并使用某种模糊逻辑来生成您正在寻找的结果。同样,这不是准确的,你需要定义你想要分母的大小的下限。

.32 <x <.34 = 1/3或类似的东西。

0
Tim

这是Ruby的实现 http://github.com/valodzka/frac

Math.frac(0.2, 100)  # => (1/5)
Math.frac(0.33, 10)  # => (1/3)
Math.frac(0.33, 100) # => (33/100)
0
valodzka